1882: British invade Sudan
1899-1955: Sudan governed as Anglo-Egyptian condominium
1922-1947: British adopt a separate system of administration for the south that cuts ties between north and south
1955: Beginning of first civil war between north and south
1956: Sudan becomes independent
1955-1972: First civil war between north and south
1969: Military coup led by Colonel Gaafar Muhammad Nimeiri
1972: President Nimeiri signs the Addis Ababa agreement, bringing to an end the first civil war
1978: Oil discovered in Bentiu in southern Sudan
1983: President Nimeiri declares the introduction of sharia law throughout the whole of Sudan
Outbreak of second civil war between north and south
1989: Military coup led by General Omar Hassan A. Al-Basheer
1983-2005: Second civil war between north and south
1991: (May) Overthrow of SPLM’s main supporter, President Mengistu Haile Miriam of Ethiopia
Exodus from Ethiopia of southern Sudanese refugees from refugee camps in Ethiopia
Rebellion against SPLM/SPLA leader, John Garang, led by Riek Machar. Formation by Machar of splinter group: SPLM/A-Nasir. Ongoing conflict within the SPLM/SPLA and attacks on civilians by both factions
1993: General Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir appointed President of Sudan
2005: January:  Government and southern rebels sign the Comprehenive Peace Agreement, bringing the second civil war to an end
July:  John Garang sworn in as first Vice-President of Sudan
August:  John Garang killed in helicopter crash.
Salva Kiir takes over as first Vice-President of Sudan and leader of the SPLM
2011: January:  Southern Sudanese vote for independence in referendum
9 July:  South Sudan becomes independent with Salva Kiir as President and Riek Machar as first Vice-President
2013: President Kiir sacks Riek Machar as Vice-President.
  December:  Fighting breaks out between rival SPLA units in Juba
2013-2015: South Sudan internal civil war
2016: April:  Riek Machar returns to Juba and is sworn in again as Vice-President
July:  Renewed fighting between Kiir and Machar factions. Machar goes into exile
2016-present: South Sudan civil war continues